401(k) A 401(k) account is an employer-provided account to an employee which consists of contributions to his/her retirement. Contributions to this plan will appear on pay stubs; and for income tax filing, withdrawals from 401(k) plans will appear on 1099-R forms.
403(b) A 403(b) plan is another, employer-provided, retirement plan that is actually an annuity with a tax shelter. Contributions to this plan will appear on pay stubs; and for income tax filing, rollovers and withdrawals will appear on 1099-R forms.
Account Balance An account balance is the existing amount in an account whether it is a cash account, checking account, retirement account or another, type of account. The account balance is always numerical.
Account Reconciliation An account reconciliation means that you have calculated and determined that the income and payments from a particular account equal the account's balance.
Accountant An accountant is the chief, financial employee in a company or corporation. Pertaining to financial matters, clerks and bookkeepers are subordinate to accountants.
Accounting Accounting is the man-made science of keeping track of, recording and reporting financial transactions among and between other humans (currently) and their business entities. Accounting always involves the appropriate currency whether it is dollars, francs, Krugerrands, lira, pesos, pounds, etc.
Accounts Payable Accounts payable are liability accounts that a company, corporation or partnership has. These are short-term accounts that usually require complete payments in one year or less.
Accounts Receivable Accounts receivable are asset accounts that a company, corporation, partnership or other business entity has. These are usually short-term accounts from which business entities expect payments from other businesses, clients and customers.
Accrual Basis The accrual basis is the sole, other basis (Cash basis being the other basis.) for reporting income or expenses for a company, corporation, partnership or other, business entity. Using the accrual basis, income and/or expenses are reported when earned, not when received.
Accrued Expense Accrued expense is an expense of which a company, corporation, or other business entity has assumed the obligation to pay, but has not yet paid.
Accrued Revenue Accrued revenue is the income/revenue that a company, corporation or other business entity has received the promise of payment from another business, client or customer, but has not actually received payment.
Accumulated Depreciation Accumulated depreciation is the amount after the first year, first half-year or first quarter of depreciation that a business entity can deduct from income in order to recover the cost of a business asset over a period (usually several years) in which the asset decreases its value.
Active-Participant Status Relating to businesses and financial concerns, the active-participant status refers to individuals who physically participate in the work of a company, corporation or other, business entity, or make decisions for a company, corporation or other, business entity.
Actuary An actuary is a person who works for an insurance company. He/she calculates dividends and premiums, and may also print and send tax-related statements to individuals who have insurance from that specific company.
Adjustable Rate Mortgage Adjustable Rate Mortgages have variable, interest rates. The interest rates often vary on a yearly basis taking into consideration the costs to the lender and other, credit factors.
Adjusted Entry An entry can be a numerical value or text on a bill, check, invoice, voucher or other, financial statement. An adjustment (adjusted entry) was made to correct such an entry.
Adjusted Gross Income (AGI) On United States income tax forms, adjusted gross income is a numerical amount that appears when all, income sources are deducted from all, eligible expenses. On Form 1040, this amount appears on Line 37 and 38.
Advance For financial purposes, an advance is where an employee gets his/her wages or salary before the date that he usually receives it.
Agent Relating to financial matters, an agent is the person who acts in the interest of another person, and who has broad or stipulated, specific fights when acting as the other person's, financial representative.
Aggressive Growth Fund An Aggressive Growth Fund is "aggressive" using the financial methods it uses to get high capital gains for a mutual fund.
Allocation Formula To allocate means to distribute or designate. An allocation formula can be the percentage amount of a dividend to allocate in a particular year, the percentage amount of tax to designate from a withdrawal of IRA funds, etc.
Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) For U.S. income tax purposes, Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) is an additional tax on certain income/expenses like accelerated depreciation, depletion, passive loss deductions, etc.
American Opportunity Tax Credit (Hope Credit) U.S. Citizens filing U.S. income tax forms can "hope" to get the Hope Credit. Taxpayers who attended colleges in the freshman and sophomore years at least on a part-time basis, and had unreimbursed, eligible, education-related expenses can usually claim this credit.
Amortization For financial purposes, amortization means to pay off periodically certain items that can appear on tax returns. Two common examples are a mortgage and bonds' premiums.
Annual Meeting of Shareholders Shareholders have "shares" (financial interest) in a company's or corporation's worth. An annual meeting of shareholders occurs once per year in which all shareholders may or may not attend in-person.
Annual Percentage Rate (APR) The APR is a financial charge levied on credit cards and other loans on an annual basis.
Annual Report An annual report is usually a business report created and distributed to executives and shareholders at the end of a business year. This report is very professional, accurate, and summarizes a company's or corporation's income, expenses and equity.
Annuitant An annuitant receives the income from an annuity.
Annuity An annuity is a source of retirement income in which an individual receives payments at regular intervals and/or yearly.
Cash Refund A cash refund is often distributed when a consumer has purchased a defective item, and returns such an item along with the sales receipt to the seller.
Annuity Certain Such an annuity means that payments will continue to the beneficiary(s) of an individual's estate even after the annuitant's death.
Annuity Joint Life Such an annuity will dispense funds until the first death among two or more annuitants.
Annuity Joint and Survivor Two individuals can have such an annuity; and full payments continue as long as both individuals are alive. In the advent of death of one of these individuals, payments continue at a pre-specified amount.
Annuity Modified Refund Employees contribute their earnings to this annuity. After retirement, if such employees die before receiving all of their contributions, the balance (including interest) is distributed to their beneficiaries.
Annuity Payout Option When retirees are eligible to receive payments from their annuity, they have the option of receiving all of their retirement money in a one-time, total amount, or over a period of time (like monthly).
Application Fee This is the fee that must be paid when an applicant submits an application. Such an application can be for employment, credit, passport creation, etc.
Appraisal Individuals or groups of individuals get an appraisal to determine an item's value.
Appreciation Financially speaking, an appreciation is the increase in value of an asset.
Articles of Incorporation (Certificate of Incorporation/Charter) In the United States and Canada, this document declares the management rules by which a corporation will be created.
Articles of Organization This document is similar to the Articles of Incorporation with the exception that it refers to forming a LLC (limited liability company).
Asset An asset is a company's, corporation's, individual's, or other, business entity's property (intangible or intangible).
Asset Allocation This can refer to an asset's designation or distribution.
Asset Class Referring to depreciation, an asset class can be one of these: 3-year property, 5-year property, 7-year property, 10-year property, 15-year property, 20-year property, 25-year property, residential property and non-residential property.
Assignment Referring to business and/or tax purposes, an assignment is a property transfer which will be held in trust or to benefit creditors.
Assumed Name An assumed name is a false name.
Authorized Shares or Stock This is the maximum amount of stock shares that a corporation or company can legally issue.
Automatic Reinvestment Automatic reinvestment of income can refer to automatically reinvesting dividends before the dividend recipients withdraw such dividends.
Bad Debts On U.S. income tax forms, companies and proprietorships can create a liability account for bad debts, but they must have be using an accrual basis for reporting income. Other qualifications for declaring a bad debt are the debt's description, debt's, payment due date; debtor's name, relationship between the business and debtor, efforts made to collect the debt, and why the debt was deemed worthless.
Balance The balance is the numerical amount existing in a cash or credit account, or the amount that still must be paid in a liability account.
Balance Sheet This is a financial form that summarizes a company's, corporation's, partnership's, proprietorship's or other, business entity's assets, liabilities and owner's equity.
Balloon Mortgage This is typically a short-term mortgage that regular payments, and a final, larger (balloon) payment at the term's end.
Bank Overdraft A bank overdraft occurs when an individual or business entity writes a check for an amount which is more than the balance in their bank account.
Bank Reconciliation This refers to reconciling (making certain that all entries [debits and credits, income and purchases] are correct) on a bank statement.
Bankrupt An individual or business entity is bankrupt (adjective) when he/she/it can no longer meet his/her/its financial obligations.
Bankruptcy This is the condition of being unable to meet financial obligations.
Basis When referring to depreciation or capital gains, this is the monetary value of an item when it was purchased.
Basis Point Often used in calculating interest rates, a basis point is one-hundredth of a percent.
Bear Market This is a stock market condition in which securities and/or commodities are losing value.
Beneficiary A beneficiary is an individual who is designated to receive the monetary benefits from an insurance policy, dividends, retirement fund, etc. if and when the policyholder or account holder cannot or is unable to receive such monetary benefits.
Benefits Received Benefits received is the amount of monetary benefits that an individual has received from a financial account.
Beta Financially, beta determines an investment's volatility.
Bill of Lading A Bill of Lading is a document that a carrier gives to a shipper. This document lists the transport terms.
Blue-Chip Stock This is stock (share in a company's worth) that has high-investment value.
Bond Financially, a bond is a certificate that declares the indebtedness of a public or private nature. These bond types usually earn interest.
Book Value Financially, book value is the numerical amount of a business entity's, total assets minus its intangible assets and liabilities.
Book of Original Entry Strictly speaking, financially, the first book in which an accounting entry was made can be Cash Receipts Journal, Cash Disbursements Journal, Sales Journal, etc.
Bookkeeping This is the process of recording a business entity's accounts and transactions.
Broker Financially, a broker typically refers to a stock broker who is a person who negotiates purchasing and selling stocks.
Budget A budget is the monetary amount that an individual or business entity has designated that should not be exceeded when making purchases or paying liabilities.
Bull Market This refers to a stock market condition in which commodities and securities are increasing in value.
Business Succession This is a contingent plan for assignment leadership positions in the advent of unforeseen circumstances occurring to a business entity's, regular leadership.
Business Taxes The taxes that a business may need to pay are sales taxes on purchases, property taxes and income taxes. These are all expenses; and they can be prepaid.
Buy-Sell Agreement This is a legally-binding agreement between the co-owners of a business entity which declares buying and selling arrangements relating to owners' equity if an owner dies or leaves the business.
Buy-and-Hold This is an investment strategy in which an investor buys stock with the intention of holding such stock for the long-term (more than 1 year).
Bylaws These are a business entity's rules to help its members govern themselves and regulate the business' affairs.
CAPS Many programs use this abbreviation. Financially, it likely refers to assist consumers with health insurance problems.
Cafeteria Employee Benefit Plan This plan relates to accident and/or health insurance obtained through your employment. When the premiums from such plans are not included in your income, the IRS deems that you have not paid such premiums; and you must include any benefits you receive in your income.
Canceled Check When a bank pays the payee of a check, it stops further payment by cancelling the check (usually on the front) with a stamp.
Capital (or Equity) The main definition of capital or equity is the owner's interest and/or investment in a business.
Capital Asset A capital asset is property that an assessee holds.
Capital Gain/Loss A capital gain is when an individual or business entity receives more income from an asset's or property's sell than what they paid to acquire the asset or property. A capital loss is when an individual or business entity receives less than the amount they paid to purchase the asset or property when they sell the asset or property.
Capital Gains Distribution This distribution occurs when mutual funds and real estate investment trusts pay or credit money to accounts.
Capital Gains Tax This is a special tax that the U.S. Internal Revenue levies on the sale of collectibles, items held for investment, etc. whereby the seller had a capital gain.
Capital Loss A capital loss occurs when a capital asset's selling value is below its purchase price.
Capital Stock This is the amount of stock that a business entity issues. Such stock can be common and/or preferred.
Cash Advance This is cash that an individual or business entity receives before the time that such cash is usually distributed or paid.
Cash Basis The cash basis is one of two accounting methods in which a business entity accounts for its cash income. Cash is recorded when actually received instead of when earned (accrual basis).
Cash Budget This is the monetary, cash amount that an individual or business entity has designated should not be exceeded when making purchases.
Cash Flow This is the flowing in (income) and out (expenses and purchases) of a business' cash.
Cash Management These procedures refer to how a business entity collects, handles and uses its cash.
Cash Surrender Value This term refers to the cash value of a life insurance policy when cancelled.
Casualty Loss For income tax purposes, a casualty refers to the damage or destruction that a property suffers. If the person or business entity that owns a casualty receives from an insurance company less than the amount that he/she/it paid for the property, then it is a casualty loss.
Certificate of Authority A Certificate of Authority certifies (declares) than an item or website is authentic and legitimate.
Certificate of Deposit A certificate of deposit (CD) is a specific, bond type that has a fixed, interest rate, and that the owner can redeem without penalty when it matures.
Certified Public Account (CPA) This individual has taken extensive, accounting courses; and the state has certified that he/she is qualified to perform and receive payment for most, if not all, accounting jobs.
Chapter 11 This is the bankruptcy option in which a debtor agrees to repay financial obligations at a reduced rate, and often over a period of time.
Chapter 7 This is the bankruptcy option in which a debtor is released from paying most debtors.
Check In financial terms, this is a paper authorization/request for payment in a specific currency.
Check Register This is an electronic or paper document that records checks disbursed or checks received.
Claim A claim requests that the claimant has legitimate, ownership rights to money, property, etc.
Claims-Paying-Ability-Rating Pertains to the risk of the ability of a borrower to pay back his/her loan; and the ability of an insurance company to pay its policyholders' claims.
Close Corporation/Closely Held Corporation This is a business entity that only has a limited number of shareholders. It is also a corporation which only occasionally publicly sells its stock.
Closing Financially and account-related, this is the time when a business entity verifies the accuracy and records such accuracy of various accounts.
Closing Costs Closing costs can refer to the expenses associated with selling an item (like real estate).
Cloud on Title Cloud on Title would make an individual or business entity consider carefully, or verify the ownership of property that has irregularities before purchasing such property.
Combined Financial Statement A Combined Financial Statement declares the assets, liabilities and equities of two or more, affiliated, business entities.
Commercial Loan A commercial loan is a loan to a business entity that conducts business by buying and selling items.
Commercial Paper This is a promissory note (IOU) that is unsecured by collateral, and that will become due in 270 days or less.
Commission This is a fee that an agent, employee, or business entity receives for performing a service or transacting business.
Commitment A commitment is a pledge or agreement to assume a financial obligation on a future date.
Common Stock In the U.S., shareholders who have common stock do not have voting rights in annual shareholders meetings.
Compound Interest This is interest added to the principal amount (deposit amount or loan amount) that also earns interest.
Compounding Financially speaking, compounding means adding to (like referring to interest ) a financial disbursement.
Consignee A consignee is the recipient of an item of which he/she holds for sale. Consignees do not own the items that receive for sale.
Consignor A consignor is an individual who sends an item to a consignee (see previous) for sale. Consignors retain ownership of items consigned.
Consolidated Financial Statements These statements usually state interest earned, dividends earned and the value of stocks sold.
Construction Loan Note A construction loan note is a short-term obligation relating to disbursing money to fund a construction project.
Contingent Beneficiary A contingent beneficiary receives the monetary benefits of an insurance policy if the main beneficiary dies.
Controlling Interest Usually referring to shareholders, these are individuals who have more stock, or their stock is more valuable, than the other shareholders. Therefore, they can control the sale of a particular, company's stock.
Convertible Term Insurance If an individual has term life insurance that expires after a stipulated amount of time, he/she can "convert" it to whole insurance, which lasts for the insurer's life.
Corporate Bond A corporate bond is a binding obligation that a corporation holds which matures in at least one year.
Corporate Record Book Such a book can be any book in which a corporation records its financial transactions.
Corporation A corporation is a large, business entity that usually has several hundred employees. This business entity is always larger than a sole proprietorship and usually larger than a company.
Correction A correction can be the written, accurate adjustment to an inaccurate entry in a journal or balance
Cosigner A cosigner assumes the debt (promises to pay) of an individual in the advent that the debtor cannot or will not pay the debt.
Covenant not to Compete A covenant is a formal, binding agreement, so a Covenant not to Compete means that a business entity agrees not to take away earnings (relating to selling the same goods) from another business entity.
Coverdell Education Savings Account (Coverdell ESA) Coverdell Education Savings Accounts are certain accounts that may get additional taxes levied on them if the owners of such accounts do not follow the rules.
Credit (1) A credit column is the right side of a balance sheet.
Credit (2) A credit is a refund of the purchase amount to a consumer's debit card or credit card.
Credit Bureau A credit bureau calculates and reports an individual's or business entity's credit rating.
Credit History This report lists the times that an individual or business entity has applied for, received, and/or has been rejected for credit.
Credit Line This is the total, monetary amount that a credit card company will allow a credit card holder to use as credit.
Credit Note Such a note is a memo that a seller issues to a buyer. This usually relates to the same amount or a lower amount on an invoice.
Credit Rating Credit bureaus issue credit ratings, which are evaluations of credit risk for individuals and business entities.
Credits Credits can be several transactions that refund purchase amounts to an individual's or business entity's credit card.
Cumulative Voting Cumulative voting is a fairer and more proportional, voting method among in corporations.
Current Asset A current asset is an asset that can easily be converted to cash.
Current Liability A current liability is a liability that must be paid with cash.
Debit The debit column is always left of the credit column.
Debit Card Use of a debit card authorizes the seller to immediately take purchase amounts from the cardholder's account.
Debt A debt is a financial obligation to pay.
Debt-to-Equity Ratio This ratio indicates the proportion of a shareholder's equity and shareholder's debt when financing a business entity's assets.
Decreasing Term Insurance Decreasing term life insurance states that death benefits will decrease (monthly or annually) during the policy's term.
Deed A deed is a signed document showing the legal transfer of property.
Deferred Annuity The individual or annuity payer has delayed or ceased payment of annuities until the time of agreement of certain conditions.
Deficit A deficit shows more can show more expenditures than revenue.
Defined Benefit Plan Employers provide such a plan to their employees. The monetary benefits upon retirement are predetermined.
Defined Contribution Plan Employers or employees provide such a plan. Employees or employers make regular, monetary contributions to this plan.
Deflation Deflation is the economic condition in which the amount of cash money or credit results in the general decline of prices.
Demand Loan This is a loan type in which the lender "demands" immediate repayment.
Dependent For income tax purposes, this is an individual who requires substantial financial and/or living arrangement assistance from a taxpayer.
Depletion When referring to companies in the mining business, this is the total mining of ores in which no more is available.
Deposit This is the adding of cash to a checking account or savings account.
Depreciation This is the financial attempt to recover the cost of an asset over time as it loses its value.
Derivative This is a contract or security that gets its value from an underlying asset.
Direct Cost Pertaining to manufacturing costs, a direct cost can be easily and accurately defined.
Direct Deposit A direct deposit is an electronic deposit into a an account holder's checking, savings or retirement account. A direct deposit requires the authorization of the account holder.
Direct Rollover A direct rollover is usually electronic, and is a deposit from an account holder's, retirement plan to another retirement plan that the account holder has.
Direct Tax A direct tax is a tax that an individual or business entity pays that does not pertain to a transaction.
Directors Directors are individuals who supervise a business entity's plans.
Disability-Income Insurance This is income that a disabled individual receives as a result of company-related accident or illness. Such an individual must have been enrolled in the particular company's disability-income insurance plan.
Discount Broker A discount broker charges clients lower-than-normal fees for buying and selling stocks without giving his/her clients financial advice.
Disposable Income Relating to an individual's or business entity's income, disposable income is the income available after the payment of taxes and the income required for living expenses.
Dissolution This is the condition whereby a business entity or individual terminates its business operations.
Diversification This is the increase of items that a business entity produces and/or makes available for purchasing.
Dividend A dividend is a monetary, interest disbursement from a mutual fund.
Dollar Cost Averaging Dollar cost averaging reduces the volatility when making large purchases of financial assets.
Domestic Corporation This is a corporation that practices business in its home country.
Double Taxation This occurs when two jurisdictions (for example, two states) levy taxes on the same income or on the same item.
Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) The Dow Jones Industrial Average is a stock market average related to real-time stock quotes, financial news, etc.
Early Withdrawal An early withdrawal occurs when a retirement account holder withdraws money from his/her retirement account before he/she has reached retirement age.
Earned Income This is income that a worker (blue collar or white collar) earns. Earned income does not include prize money or the gain from the sale of capital assets.
Earned Income Credit This is a credit or amount of tax reduction that a taxpayer may qualify for if he/she has earned income, and meets certain other qualifications.
Electronic Banking The form of banking allows cash and savings account holders to electronically deposit and electronically withdraw money.
Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) Electronic commerce relates to trading, buying and selling commodities via the Internet of by other electronic methods.
Electronic Filing (IRS e-file) This is an option that U.S. taxpayers have to file their income taxes. Electronic filing does not require that the taxpayer mail his/her, or in the case of a business entity, paper tax return to the IRS because the tax preparer's computer encodes the tax return and sends it electronically.
Electronic Funds Transfer System (EFTS) This is a system that transfers money from one bank account to another. Such a transfer can go electronically from one bank to another without human assistance.
Employment Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) The Employment Retirement Security Act became a law in 1974; and this act established the minimum requirements that business entities must adhere to when providing pension plans and employee benefit plans.
Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP) Some companies and corporations allow their employees to have ownership of a company or corporation by providing them with stock. Although such employees do not initially pay for such stock, this stock is related to the work such employees have done.
Endowment This is income from donations.
Engagement Letter When a legal relationship exists between a professional firm and its clients, an engagement letter was likely first created and distributed to define compensation terms and/or compensation methods.
Enrolled Agent An enrolled agent is a person with federal authority who represents taxpayers if they are called in for auditing of their tax returns.
Equity If an owner has equity in a business entity, he/she has an ownership claim and/or his/her interest in such a business entity is at risk.
Equity Loan This is a loan that uses real estate as collateral.
Escrow Escrow means that a third party holds money, property or a deed until the intended recipient fulfills a certain condition.
Estate An estate is the assets and liabilities that person leaves when he/she dies.
Estate Planning This planning can be part of a person's will in which he/she details the administration of his/her estate upon his/her death.
Estate Taxes On U.S. Income Tax Form, Schedule A, taxpayers can deduct real estate taxes related to personal property. U.S. taxpayers can deduct business-related, real estate taxes on Schedule C.
Excess Compensation This compensation type refers to payments from an employer to an employee to determine the employee's, retirement allowance.
Excise Tax An example of an excise tax is a tax on gasoline when gasoline is not an expense of a business entity. In such a case the business entity cannot deduct this excise tax.
Executor An executor is a person and/or firm named in an individual's will who will have primary responsibility for distributing the assets of the deceased's estate.
Exempt (from tax liability) This means that a person on business entity does not need to pay taxes.
Exempt (from withholding) This means that an individual who earns wages or a salary qualifies not to have part of his/her wages withheld to pay for certain taxes.
Expenditure This is outlay that a business entity charges against revenue for a specific period.
External Auditor Such an auditor is not an employee of the business entity of which he/she verifies accounting records.
F.O.B The is the abbreviation for free on board; and it specifies the point at which a seller transfers ownership of goods to a buyer.
FICA (Federal Insurance Contributions Act) This act put into law the requirement that employers must withhold a certain percentage of their employees' wages to fund Social Security and Medicare.
Form 1040EZ This is a shorter form than the 1040 Form that a U.S. taxpayer may be qualified to use when filing his income taxes.
Form W-2 This is the form that an employee gives to his/her employer to authorize withholding of part of income for tax purposes.
Form W-4 (Employee's withholding allowance certificate) This is form that declares an employee is exempt from withholding.
Fair Market Value When filing U.S. income taxes, this value is used to determine the price that at which a willing buyer would accept property ownership from a willing seller.
Family Limited Partnership (FLP) Partners (general or limited) use these to transfer wealth from one generation to another generation.
Federal Reserve System (The Fed) This is the central, banking system for the United States.
Federal Tax Identification Number This number is a nine-digit number that the IRS assigns to business entities that operate in the U.S. FTINs are on all 1099 forms, most, if not all, W2-G forms, and many, other forms.
Fiduciary A fiduciary is a person of business entity that holds money or property in trust.
File a Return This means to send income tax forms to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service
Filing Status For filing U.S. income tax forms, the taxpayer's filing status can be one of these: single, married filing jointly, married filing separately, head of household or qualifying widow/widower with dependent child.
Financial Aid The type of financial assistance often refers to money given to individuals to complete their post-secondary school education.
Financial Statements These statements are a business entity's, formal records summarizing financial activities.
First-to-Die Life Insurance This is an insurance policy for two individuals. When one of the policyholders die, the surviving policyholder receives the death benefit of the life insurance policy.
Fiscal Year This is an accounting period that lasts 12 months.
Fixed Annuity This is an insurance contract in which an insurance company makes regular, specified, and unchanging (same amount) payments to the annuitant until death or the contract's cancellation.
Fixed Assets These assets cannot easily be converted into cash; an office building and equipment are examples.
Fixed Rate This can refer to the unchanging, percentage amount of interest amount than business entity pays on a loan.
Fixed Rate Mortgage A fixed rate mortgage states that the interest on the loan remains the same during the loan's, entire term.
Floating Debt This occurs when a business entity continually refinances a short-term debt.
Flood Insurance This is insurance to help repair the damage to real estate damaged by a flood, or to help pay for possessions damaged by flood.
For Sale by Owner (FSBO) The owner of certain real estate property chooses to sell such property themselves instead of using a real estate agency.
Foreclosure This is a legal proceeding whereby the lender attempts to force sale of real estate to recover enough money to pay the loan balance.
Foreign Corporation A foreign corporation registers to do business in a jurisdiction or state different than the jurisdiction or state in which was its original incorporation.
Forfeitures These are the losses of money or property because legal obligations were not met/paid.
Formal Tax Legislation Process This is a process whereby a tax rule or tax change may become law in the United States.
Franchise This is a business entity's license and permission for another business entity to use its logo, trademark, and other, intangible assets.
Franchise Tax This is a tax that a municipality, state or the federal government levies on a franchise.
Fringe Benefits Fringe benefits are benefits that an employer gives to an employee that does not affect the employee's wages.
Front-End Load This is a fee charged to an investor with the first payment to recover administrative expenses and transaction costs.
Futures On the stock exchange, commodity futures are bought or sold with the expectation of future gain or loss.
GAAP This is an acronym for generally accepted accounting principles.
GAAS This is an acronym for generally accepted auditing standards.
General Journal A general journal has the date that a transaction occurred, the amount of increase or decrease, and a brief description of the transaction.
General Ledger A general ledger is a collection of individual, ledger accounts along with their balances.
General Partner A general partner of a partnership is responsible for the business entity's actions, and is personally liable for the business entity's debts and obligations.
Gift A gift is an item or money freely given without the expectation of compensation in the form of money or property.
Gift Tax A gift tax is nondeductible on federal income tax forms.
Golden Boot This occurs when a business entity pays an employee a large, severance package (usually in the form of money) to resign.
Golden Handcuffs This occurs when a business entity pays an employee who is earning a large salary an additional financial and/or benefits incentive to remain as an employee of the business entity.
Golden Parachute This is a large payment to a business entity's executive when such an executive is dismissed as a result of a merger or takeover.
Goodwill This is an intangible asset representing a business entity's, favorable reputation with its consumers and/or suppliers.
Government Bond In the United States, the Treasury Department issues a government bond with the promise that it will make periodic, interest payments, and will repay the face value on its maturity date.
Grace Period In the case of a loan, this is the amount of time after the loan's balance becomes due in which the lender will not charge penalties if the borrower pays the balance.
Gross Estate Gross estate is an estate's value before considering liabilities.
Gross Income For a taxpayer filing a U.S. Individual Income Tax Return, gross income is the total income on Form 1040, line 22.
Gross Monthly Income This is the monthly amount of income that individual or business entity receives before considering liabilities.
Group Life Insurance This is a life insurance policy in which a group of people are the insured.
Guardian A guardian is an individual who cares for a person, or who cares for the property belong to another individual.
Health Savings Account (HSA) This is a specific, savings account created, and that contains money, designated to pay for medical expenses. This account type cannot be a medical or dental expense deduction on Schedule A.
Highly Compensated Employee (HCE) According to the IRS, this is an individual who is considered highly-compensated because he/she owns more than 5% of a business entity's interest.
Housing Ratio Lenders use this ratio to compare a borrower's, housing expenses to a borrower's gross income.
Income On U.S. Individual Tax Returns, all of these are income: wages, salaries, tips, taxable interest, tax-exempt interest, ordinary dividends, qualified dividends, taxable refunds, alimony received, business income, capital gains, other gains, IRA distributions, pensions and annuities, income from real estate, partnerships, S corporations and trusts, royalties, farm income, unemployment compensation, social security benefits, and other income such as certain jury duty pay and prizes.
Income Statement A business entity's income statement shows revenues, expenses, net operating profit, net income available to stockholders.
Income Tax This is a federal tax on income that an individual or business entity receives.
Incorporated (Inc.) This means that a company has formed a legal corporation.
Incorporator This is the individual who has the authority to establish a corporation, and who files the Articles of Incorporation with a specific state.
Indemnify This means to secure an individual or business entity against loss or damage, or to secure an individual or business entity against legal responsibility for their actions.
Index In the world of the stock market, an index is a list of companies that publicly trade and their respective stock prices
Indirect Tax An examples of an indirect tax is a sales tax, value added tax or goods and services tax. Retail stores collect indirect taxes from consumers.
Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs) These are retirement accounts that an individual contributes money to for their eventual retirement.
Inflation Inflation occurs when prices rise because of an increase in the volume of money and credit in relation to goods and services.
Informal Tax Legislation Process This is a process in which U.S. citizens attempt to influence tax legislators by holding meetings, signing petitions and contributing to advocacy groups.
Initial Public Offering (IPO) An initial public offering occurs when investors purchase a company's shares, and then, for the first time, sells them to the public.
Insolvency Insolvency occurs when a business entity cannot pay its debts when due.
Installment This is commonly an agreement between a purchaser and a seller for the purchaser to pay for the item's cost over a period of time instead of all at once.
Insufficient Funds This typically occurs when a financial institution declares that an account holder lacks enough money to pay a check that he/she wrote.
Insurability This is the determination as to whether a certain, loss type can be insured, or whether an individual or business entity can be insured.
Insurable Interest If a person or business entity benefits financially by the continuous existence of an insured item that is not damaged or impaired, then this particular individual or business entity has insurable interest for the insured item.
Insured This is state and/or condition of a person or business entity when it has insurance.
Intangible Asset This is an asset that one cannot touch when such assets are in their operative states like goodwill, copyrights, patents, etc.
Integrated Plan In the business world, an integrated plan is a plan participation of all stockholders and the respective departments.
Intellectual Capital A business entity's intellectual capital is an intangible asset referring to the value of its employees.
Interest (1) This is an additional charge (usually a percentage) on the amount of money lent.
Interest (2) When invested capital earns profit, such profit is interest.
Interest Income When referring to savings accounts and mutual funds accounts this is income that account holders receive if they keep money in such accounts for a specified amount of time.
Interest Rate The interest rate can refer to the percentage amount, based on the amount borrowed, that a lender will charge over a specified, time period.
Internal Auditor This is an employee of the company or corporation of which he/she examines and verifies accounts.
Internal Control In accounting and auditing, this is the process whereby a business entity assures itself that it will achieve its objectives.
Internal Rate of Return (IRR) This is the interest rate at which the net, present values from a business entity's cash flows relating to a project or investment equal zero.
Inventory The is a collection of unsold merchandise that a business entity may have in its warehouse or store.
Investment If an individual or business entity makes an investment, he/she/it outlays money to earn money from the invested property.
Investment Objective This occurs when an investor has a financial goal.
Invoice This is an itemized statement listing items sold or services rendered; and this statement typically requests payment for the goods sold and/or services rendered.
Irrevocable Trust This type of trust means that it can only be changed or cancelled with the beneficiary's permission.
Joint Products Joint products occur when manufacturers produce different products from the same manufacturing process at the same time.
Joint Tenancy Type of shared, property ownership in which each owner has undivided interest in a property.
Journal In accounting, a journal is an accounting record of business transactions that includes the date on which the transaction occurred, and the amount and type of transaction.
Journal Entry This is an entry in a journal that includes the date of occurrence, type of transaction and a brief description of the transaction.
Keogh Accounts Keogh accounts are accounts that self-employed individuals can set up.
Keogh Plan A Keogh Plan is a qualified retirement plan from which a distribution is fully taxable.
Key Employee A key employee has most ownership and/or most decision-making role for a business entity.
Key Person Insurance If a business entity purchases a life insurance policy on a key employee's life, it is key person insurance.
Lapsed Policy The declaration of a lapsed policy occurs when an insurance company cancels a policy because of nonpayment of premiums on due dates or nonpayment of premiums during grace periods
Lease This is a contract for renting real estate, or allowing an individual or business entity to live in or conduct business in a piece of real estate.
Lease-Purchase Agreement This is a contract given to individuals who intend to lease property so that they may have the option to purchase such property during the lease's term.
Leaseback (Sale and Leaseback) This is a financial transaction in which an individual or business entity sells an asset, and then leases it back for a long-term period.
Leasehold Improvements These are improvements (not repairs) on leased property that increase the value of such leased property.
Ledger A ledger is an accounting book containing an account which has debits and credits.
Letter of Credit A bank issues a letter of credit guaranteeing that a seller will receive a payment as long as the seller follows certain, delivery conditions.
Level Premium Term Insurance In a term insurance policy, premiums remain level (the same amount) throughout the policy's term.
Liability Relating to business entities, a liability is a debt.
Life Annuity This is an annuity that has a predetermined, payout amount until the annuitant's death.
Life Cycle When referring to a business entity, this is the period after such an entity opens to conduct business, and when it ceases to conduct business.
Life Expectancy Insurance companies make this estimate to determine the average life span of an individual.
Life Insurance This is insurance that a company provides to an individual in which such a company will pay monetary compensation to the insurer's beneficiary when he/she dies.
Lifetime Learning Credit When filing an U.S. Individual Tax Return, a taxpayer may be eligible to claim this education credit if they have a filing status that is other than Married Filing Separately, and if they meet other educational qualifications.
Limited (LTD.) This refers to a company in which its members and/or subscribers are limited to what they have invested or guaranteed to the company.
Limited Liability Company In a limited liability company, the owners have limited, personal liability for the company's debts.
Limited Liability Corporation (LLC) A limited liability has the same, personal, liability limits on its owners for the corporation's debts that a company has.
Limited Partnership In a limited partnership, the limited partner is usually not responsible for the partnership's debts that exceed his/her amount of capital investment.
Liquid Asset This is cash, or property that can easily be sold for cash.
Liquid Assets This is several types of property, life insurance policies and securities that a business entity can easily convert to cash.
Liquidation This is the process that a business entity takes to convert its assets to cash in order to pay debtors and/or creditors.
Liquidation Value This is an asset's, likely value when it has insufficient time to be sold on the open market.
Liquidity Liquidity is the degree to which an asset can be bought quickly or sold quickly without affecting its value.
Liquidity Ratio This is a ratio used to determine if a business entity can pay its short-term, debt obligations.
Living Trust This is an arrangement whereby a trustee holds legal title to the property of another person who is the beneficiary.
Living Will Such a will gives directions to physicians regarding their wishes for end-of-life, medical care.
Local Tax Municipalities and counties impose this tax on business entities.
Locking In This can refer to declaring an unchanging percentage with regard to a discount on an item for sell.
Long-Term Care Insurance This time of insurance is generally similar to accident and health insurance. Provisions are made and expenses are paid for chronically-ill individuals; and such a policy will not reimburse expenses that Medicare would reimburse.
Loss A loss could refer to a piece of real estate that is completely destroyed, and from which the owner receives no compensation for its loss. A loss could also refer to the income state of a sole proprietorship when it files its taxes wherein its expenses exceeded its income.
Management Accounting Mangers use accounting information to learn more about income, expenses and equity before deciding matters within their business organizations.
Management Buyout This occurs when a business entity's, existing managers acquire ownership of a large part of the business entity from the parent company or from private owners.
Management Fee Regarding investments, this is the periodic fee paid by an investment fund to the fund's, investment advisor.
Manager This can be an individual who directs the actions of business entity's, blue-collar and white-collar workers.
Mandatory Employee Contribution This can be a contribution that an employee must make to a retirement plan, as in the case if such an employee has a 403b plan.
Market Risk Referring to the stock market, this is risk of loss that could occur if stock prices decline.
Market Timing This is a strategy referring to the stock market whereby investors attempt to predict future, market prices.
Market Value This is the price at which an asset would trade in a competitive auction.
Materiality Materiality is an accounting and auditing concept referring to the significance of an amount, transaction or discrepancy.
Maturity When referring to a savings bond this is the time when the owner of such a bond can redeem it for the bond's face value plus interest.
Medicaid This is a program of federal, medical assistance that wage earners contribute to by withholding a certain amount of income from their pay.
Medicare Medicare includes A, B and D, of which some of these plans will pay for voluntary, prescription drugs, supplemental medical insurance and in-patient care in a qualified, medical facility, etc.
Medicare Part D In this Medicare Plan an individual who enrolled can deduct medical, expense premiums on their U.S. Income Tax Returns.
Member A member can be an inorganic section of a business entity.
Merger A merger occurs when a business entity absorbs another business entity to form a new business entity.
Minimum Participation Requirements Regarding retirement plans that employers contribute to, this can be the minimum amount that they must contribute.
Minority Interest Minority interest is the same as non-controlling interest.
Minutes This is the official record of a business entity's meeting.
Money Market When money becomes commodities, this market becomes a part of financial markets as it relates to short-term borrowing, short-term lending, short-term buying and short-term selling.
Monthly Housing Expenses These are monthly expenses that an individual may have if he/she has a mortgage.
Mortality Table This is a table that displays, according to each age, the probability that an individual will die before his/her next birthday.
Municipal Bond Cities, towns and/or counties issue this bond.
Name Reservation Relating to business entities, such an entity may reserve a name through its state of incorporation.
National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations (NASDAQ) U.S.-based Stock exchange which is the second largest in the world.
Net Income This is income amount after the consideration and/or payment of liabilities.
Net Worth This is an individual's or business entity's total assets minus its total, outside liabilities.
New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) This is another American stock exchange which is the largest in the World.
No-Par-Value Stock Investors determine the price they will pay for no-par-value stock.
Noncontributory Retirement Plan This is a pension plan to which an employer contributes money that does not require contributions from his/her employees.
Nonforfeitable Benefit This is a benefit given to employees of which employers cannot take away.
Nonqualified Plan A key executive and a certain employee may have a nonqualified retirement plan to meet his/her specialized, retirement needs. Such a plan is not covered by ERISA guidelines.
Not-For-Profit Corporation In such a corporation, the profits go back into organization instead of being distributed to shareholders.
Notary Public This is a public official who attests and/or certifies certain documents like affidavits, depositions, etc.
Note Payable (Promissory Note) A note payable requires that the business entity's officers sign a formal loan before the lender will loan money.
Note Receivable Such a note is an asset for a business entity; and this note requires full payment over a period that is 30 days or longer.
Offering Price This is the price at which new issues of stock are made available to the public for purchasing.
Officers These are a business entity's employees and/or executives who have authority to sign certain, specified documents, and who have authority to perform certain, specified actions.
Old-Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance (OASDI) This is the official name for Social Security Insurance in the United States.
Operating Agreement A limited liability company may have an operating agreement that governs its members' financial and managerial rights.
Option When referring to stock, this privilege sold from one individual to another gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation to buy or sell such stock at the agreement price within a certain, specified, time period.
Options These can be several privileges sold among individual relating to choosing to buy or sell stock at agreed upon prices within specified, time periods.
Ordinary Income An example of ordinary income from the IRS definition is a paycheck that an employee receives every two weeks.
Organizational Meeting This is the first meeting that a business entity has after it is officially formed.
Over-the-Counter (OTC) Referring to the stock market, over-the-counter means that no one supervises the trading between two parties.
Overhead An overhead is an unidentified operating expense.
Owner's Equity This is the risk interest that an owner has in a business.
PITI Referring to a mortgage, this acronym pertains the total of monthly principal, interest, taxes and insurance.
Paid in Capital Requirements Investors pay this capital amount during stock (common and preferred) issuances.
Paid-Up-Additions Paid-Up additions are insurance policy riders that allow the insured to quickly accumulate a policy's' cash value.
Par Value This is a stock's value. A corporate charter determines this value.
Par-Value For a bond, this is the full amount of its face value.
Parent Company A parent company has enough voting stock in another company so that it can influence or elect is board of directors.
Partnership A proprietorship, which is a business that a single individual owns, will join with another proprietorship to combine their resources for having a better chance of success.
Pass-Through-Taxation This type of taxation means that taxes get passed to the business owners' tax returns instead of being levied on the businesses.
Past Due This can occur if an insured does not pay his premium on an agreed upon date.
Patent This is an intangible asset claiming ownership of an invention and/or process.
Payable This can refer to an asset like accounts payable which means that customers owe a company payments through installment plans.
Payroll This is a listing of employees who have earned money by working for a business entity.
Payroll Taxes In the U.S., these are taxes that employers must withhold from employees' wages.
Pension This is a qualification to receive income when an individual retires.
Permanent Life Insurance This refers to a life insurance plan that does not expire, and combines a death benefit with savings.
Personal Income Tax This is the tax on an individual's, personal income.
Plan Administrator This individual manages the common, regular affairs and decisions associated with a group pension plan.
Plan Sponsor A plan sponsor is an individual or company that sets up a healthcare or retirement plan.
Policy Referring to insurance, this is a contract between the insurer and the insured.
Policy Dividend A company decides as to whether it will pay its profits to an employee as a dividend, or retain such profits as earnings.
Policy Exclusion Some insurance policy will not cover the loss or damage for a certain property or certain item.
Policy Loan This occurs when an insurance company uses as collateral the cash value of an individual's, life insurance policy.
Policy Reserves This refers to the pro rata of the total reserve for a many policies.
Policy Rider These is an addition to an insurance policy that provides additional benefits, but also requires that the insured pay an additional price.
Policyholder This is the insured (individual or group) named in an insurance policy.
Portability Referring to health insurance and retirement benefits, this is an employee's right to keep such when switching employers and/or retiring.
Portfolio These are all of the investments that a business entity has.
Posting This is an entry transfer from a book of original entry to the proper account in a ledger.
Power of Attorney This is the legal authorization that an individual gives to another to manage his/her financial affairs.
Preemptive Rights This is where current shareholders have the rights to keep the value of their fractional by buying a proportional amount of shares (common stock only) on a future date.
Preferred Stock This stock type is more valuable than common stock.
Premature or Early Distributions This occurs when an individual withdraws money from his/her retirement account before he/she has reached the eligible, retirement age.
Premium This is an amount that an insured individual pays to an insurance company to keep an insurance policy active.
Premium Loan This occurs when an insurance company gives a loan to the policyholder so that he/she can pay a due premium. The policy's cash value is security.
Prepaid This means that an individual or business entity paid a bill or expense before its due date.
Prepayment This is the actual act of paying a bill or expense before its due date.
Prepayment Penalty Lenders for mortgage contracts may include this penalty to reduce the loss of income when there is a risk that the lender will refinance.
Present Value On the date that an item is valued, this is the expected income if sold.
Price/Earnings Ratio (P/E) This is a ratio used to value a company that is based upon its stock price in relation to its earnings per share.
Primary Beneficiary If an insurance policy lists several beneficiaries, this is the individual who will to receive death benefits.
Prime Rate This refers to the interest rate that commercial banks charge their customers who have the best credit.
Principal This is an individual who have controlling authority or the leading position.
Private Letter Ruling This is where the U.S. Internal Revenue Service responds to a taxpayer's, guidance request.
Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI) Private insurance companies provide this mortgage insurance on conventional loans.
Professional Corporation These are corporate business entities that have special consideration; notably, they can use attorneys, architects and other, licensed professionals.
Profit Simply defined, this the amount of income received that exceeds an items cost.
Profit and Loss Statement This financial statement shows a business entity's revenues and expenses for a specified period.
Profit-Sharing Plan This is an incentive plan that a business entity may provide to its employees to directly or indirectly distribute some or all of the business entity's profits.
Progressive Tax This is a tax in which the tax rate (percentage) increases as the taxable amount increases.
Prohibited Transaction Relating to Individual Retirement Accounts, the IRS deems these any of these as a prohibited transaction: borrowing money from them, selling property to them, using them as security for loans, and using the money in them to buy property for personal use.
Property This is a piece of real estate or an item or thing that an individual owns.
Property Tax This is a monetary charge that a municipality, state and/or federal government levies on the ownership and/or use of property.
Proportional Tax This is the opposite of a progressive tax; the tax rate is fixed.
Prospectus For the benefit of potential buyers, this is a disclosure statement describing a business entity's financial security.
Proxy Referring to an individual who has common stock in a U.S. corporation, this individual can vote (proxy) in-person, by phone or online.
Qualified Plan A qualified plan has these qualities: business entities may deduct the taxes on contributions; participants do not need to pay taxes on contributions; creditors cannot take money from these plans; and earnings on contributions increase without being taxed.
Quorum In a business meeting, a quorum is the minimum number of members needed to conduct the meeting's business.
Quotation Regarding a service, this is the amount that an individual or business entity estimates will be the cost for performing the service.
Rate of Return This is the loss or gain that an investment has during a specified, time period.
Rated Policy This is an insurance policy in which the insured pays higher than normal premiums due to the insured's, risky occupation.
Ratio This is a relationship, often percentage, between two or more amounts, sizes and/or quantities.
Real Estate Investment Trust Fund (REIT) This is a fund that a company who owns and operates income-producing real estate has.
Recapitalization This occurs when a corporations substantially changes its capital structure.
Receivable A business entity makes a legally, enforceable claim for payment from a client and/or customer.
Redemption This is the noun associated with redeeming (removing an obligation) for payment like the redemption of a U.S. Savings Bond.
Refinancing An individual who has a home mortgage may refinance (get a newer and lower, interest rate) it.
Refund A person who buys defective merchandise may get the money he paid for the merchandise returned (refund) from the seller if he returns the defective merchandise to the seller.
Registered Agent This is the person designated to receive federal and state documents for a business entity.
Registered Office This is a business entity's, official address.
Regressive Tax The tax rate of regressive tax decreases as the taxable amount increases.
Required Minimum Distribution (RMD) This is the minimum amount that retirees must receive from their traditional retirement, Simple IRAs and SEP plans by April 1 in the year after they reach 70½ years old.
Resolution Referring to a business meeting, this is the formal expression of opinion or intention.
Retained Earnings When a business entity has net income, it sometimes keeps (retains) these earnings instead of distributing this income to shareholders.
Revenue This is the total income that a specific source produces.
Reverse Mortgage This is a home loan requiring no monthly, mortgage payments for older homeowners who have built up the equity in their home.
Review Engagement This occurs if a public accountant reviews a business entity's, financial information at the request of a client. Such a review consists of inquiries, analytical procedures and discussions.
Review Engagement Report This is the formal findings from a public accountant after he/she conducts a review engagement.
Risk In business, this is the change for loss, usually for income loss.
Risk Tolerance This is the extent of money that an investor is willing to risk on an investment.
Rollover One example of a rollover is transferring funds from one retirement to another retirement account without needing to pay taxes on those funds.
Roth IRA Interest earned on the contributions in a Roth IRA, which is a specific type of retirement plan is usually not taxable.
Roth IRA Conversion This is a rollover of contributions from a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA.
S Corporation The IRS classifies a S Corporation as a corporation among whose shareholders share income and losses. This corporation type does not pay federal income taxes.
SIMPLE (Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees) Plan This plan allows employers and employees to contribute to a traditional IRA.
Salary Reduction Plan Employers sponsor this plan for their employees, and put part of their employees' wages directly into this plan. Such a reduction can be before or after the employees' taxes.
Sales Taxes These are taxes a seller charges to customers on the type of goods that customers purchase.
Savings Account This is a type of bank account for an individual. Money in a savings account earns interest.
Schedule A schedule is a special, IRS form that U.S. taxpayers use when filing their taxes. These are some of the most common schedules: A, B, SE, C, D, E, F and R.
Section 162 (Executive Bonus) This is a nonqualified plan to which an employer pays the premiums on a permanent life insurance policy that has an employee as the insured.
Secured Card A secured card is a credit card that an individual who has a poor credit rating can qualify for if he/she deposits the credit limit amount with the particular credit card company.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) This is an agency of the U.S. federal government that enforces security laws, proposes security rules and regulates the security industry.
Security This is a financial asset that can be traded.
Security Deposit An individual with a poor, credit rating interested in obtaining a credit card deposits this amount with the credit card company; and this amount is her/her credit limit.
Self-Directed IRA (SDA) Some U.S. financial institutions provide this type of retirement account that allows alternative types of investments like limited partnerships, precious metals, etc.
Self-Employment Tax On U.S. Income Tax Returns, this is a tax on individuals who are self-employed. The taxes go on Schedule SE.
Self-Select Pin U.S. taxpayers choose a five-digit number to represent their signature when filing tax returns electronically.
Seller Financing This is a loan that a seller of a property or business provides to the purchaser.
Settlement Costs Concerning the purchase of a home, these are settlement costs: loan origination fee, appraisal fee, points, title search, insurance, survey, taxes, deed recording fee, credit report charge, etc.
Share This is a single unit of stock.
Shareholder This is an individual or organization that owns interest (stock) in a public or private corporation.
Simplified Employee Pension Plan (SEP) Such a plan provides business owners with a simplified method for contributing to their employees' retirements.
Situs This is the place where something like property exists.
Small Business Association (SBA) This is a U.S. government agency that assists entrepreneurs and individuals to establish small businesses.
Smart Card This is a debit card and/or credit card that has a computer chip embedded in it.
Social Security The U.S. government established this program in 1935 to include old-age and survivors insurance.
Social Security Tax This is a mandatory tax that employers must withhold from their employees' wages.
Sole Proprietorship In this business type, only one person owns and operates it.
Split-Dollar Life Insurance This is a type of life insurance policy that benefits employer and employee.
Spousal IRA In this IRA, a working spouse can contribute to the non-working spouse's, retirement savings.
Standard & Poor's 500 Index (S&P 500) This index lists the 500, best performing stocks.
Standard Deductions These are amounts on Form 1040, line 40 that reduce the amount of income on which individuals are taxed if they do not choose to itemize their deductions.
State Taxes These are taxes to which individuals and business entities must pay to U.S. state governments.
Stated Capital This is the amount of capital that a business entity must hold to pay dividends and other payouts.
Statement An example of a financial statement is a Profit & Loss Statement.
Statement of Changes in Financial Position This is one of the four, main, financial statements for a business entity. The others are the balance sheet, retained earnings statement and the income statement.
Statement of Earnings This statement verifies the beginning and ending retained earnings for a business entity relating to a specified period.
Statement of Financial Position This is a financial balances summary for a business entity.
Statement of Retained Earnings This statement should show retained earnings for a beginning date, plus net income, minus dividends, and then the retained earnings for an ending date.
Stock This is the equity stake of a business entity's owners.
Stock Certificate This is a legal document that certifies ownership of stock.
Stock Dividend This is a payment from stock in the form of additional shares.
Stock Market In this market shares of publicly-held companies are traded.
Stock Option This option gives the stock buyer the right to buy or sell, but not the obligation, underlying assets on or before a specific date.
Stock Purchase Plan In reference to a stock purchase plan for employees, such a plan gives employees the opportunity to buy its company's stock at a discounted price.
Stock Split This occurs when a corporation divides its existing shares into multiple shares.
Stock Transfer Book This book records the transfer of stock from one individual or business entity to another individual or business entity.
Stockholder Such an individual or business entity can have capital interest in another business entity.
Straight-Term Mortgage This is a mortgage loan in which the borrower only pays interest during the loan term.
Subsidiary Such a business entity is controlled by a larger, related business entity.
Survivorship Life Insurance In these life insurance policies, the insurance company pays death benefits when the second, insured person dies.
Tangible Asset A tangible asset has a physical form.
Tariff Duty This is a tax on exported items.
Tax Avoidance A business entity may use tax avoidance to legally avoid paying taxes on income.
Tax Credit On U.S. income tax forms, any of these can be a tax credit: Alternative Motor Vehicle Credit, Child and Dependent Care Credit, Child Tax Credit, Earned Income Credit, The Lifetime Learning Credit, Credit for the Elderly or the Disabled, Foreign Tax Credit, Mortgage Interest Credit and Residential Energy Credit.
Tax Credits On U.S. Individual Tax Returns, tax credits can be listed on lines 64a-71 of Form 1040.
Tax Deductions A result of expenses, this is an income reduction that can be taxed.
Tax Evasion This is the illegal avoidance to pay taxes.
Tax Exempt This is an item or amount which does not need to have taxes paid upon it.
Tax Liability This is money that a business entity owes to a municipal government, state government or to the federal government.
Tax Lien This is a legal claim to satisfy a debt such as with the failure to pay property taxes.
Tax Shelter A business entity may use a tax shelter to reduce taxable income.
Tax Shift If a business entity uses a tax shift, it eliminates or reduces taxes while keeping the same revenue amount.
Tax Withholdings These are amounts (mandatory or otherwise) that employers withhold from their employees' wages.
Tax-Exempt Bond An example of a tax-exempt bond is a municipal bond.
Tax-Sheltered Annuity A 403(b) retirement plan is a tax-sheltered annuity.
Taxable Income This is the base income upon which states and the federal government imposes taxes.
Taxes These are monetary charges that governments (municipal, state or federal) charge individuals or business entities for performing public services.
Tenants by the Entirety This is when a married couple has equal, undivided rights to a property.
Tenants in Common If this informal method is on a title, it means that each owner owns a specific percentage of a property.
Term Certain Referring to insurance, this means that an insurance policy guarantees a periodic payment at a specific amount for a fixed term.
Term Insurance This insurance provides coverage at a fixed, payment rate for a limited time.
Time Horizon This is the time period in which a business entity might make and hold for an investment before it liquidates it.
Tips These are monetary considerations given to individuals who perform services.
Title This is the right or claim to property ownership.
Title Insurance In the U.S., this is insurance that insures against financial loss because of defects in real estate, property titles.
Title Search This is a search to determine who has ownership (deed) to real estate property.
Total Disability This means that an individual cannot work in his/her occupation, or any occupation, because he/she has a specific sickness or injury.
Total Return Referring to an investments portfolio, a total return considers the capital appreciation and the income received.
Transaction Fee An example of a transaction fee is the fee a broker would charge to purchase stock for an investor.
Transaction Taxes These taxes refer to taxes on deals between foreign governments.
Treasuries These are U.S. government obligations of which our government backs with its full faith and credit.
Treasury Bill The U.S. government issues this short-term promissory note for regulating the money supply.
Treasury Shares A business entity's treasury shares pay no dividends and have no voting rights.
Trial Balance This is the next-to-final verification of financial transactions before accountants and book-keepers post such transactions in ledgers.
Triple Net Lease In this lease type, the lessee is also a tenant who is responsible for all costs relating to the leased property.
Trust This is confidence that a person places in a person or organization when it hands over his/her property for holding.
Trust Fund Cash, stocks, bond and other, property types can be in a trust fund.
Trustee This is an individual or board member who can control or administer property held in trust.
Ultra Vires This is a legal term in Latin meaning "beyond the powers."
Unanimous Written Consent Referring to a proposal in a board of directors meeting, all present must give written assent for the proposal to be implemented.
Underwriting Referring to insurance, this means to sign, accept liability, and guarantee payment if loss or damage occurs for the insured.
Unemployment The state of not earning wages from a job.
Uniform Gift to Minors Act (UGMA) Some U.S. states have this act which allows custodians to hold securities that would benefit minors when the donors have given up possession and control.
Universal Life Insurance A type of life insurance that has a cash value.
Unsecured Debt A debt type that has no collateral, or has protection by a guarantor.
Valuation Day The date on which an appraisal is made.
Variable Interest Rate A credit card, bond and loan may have this rate in which the interest amount varies.
Variance Relating to financial concerns, this is the spread between amounts as in several price amounts.
Vertical Equity This equity type includes progressive taxation and proportional taxation.
Vesting This can mean informing an employee that he/she will unconditionally receive a share or pension.
Volatility This is the degree variation of a trading price series during a specific, time period that measures the standard deviation of returns.
Voluntary Compliance This is an alternative for a business entity's behavior with regard to state-imposed regulations.
Voluntary Employee Contribution This can be when an employee gives money to a charity without expecting anything in return.
Volunteer Income Tax Assistance This program offers free, tax assistance to individuals who earn less than $53,000 per year, disabled persons, elderly persons, and individuals who have difficulty speaking English.
Waiver of Premium This is a rider in an insurance policy that allows the insured to not pay any further premiums if he/she becomes seriously ill or disabled.
Walk-In Electronic Filing When a U.S. taxpayer is able to electronically file his/her tax return after walking into a tax preparation company.
Whole Life Insurance This insurance policy has a guarantee to remain in force for the insured's, entire life as long as premiums are paid.
Withholding (Pay-as-you-earn-taxation) This type of tax payments allow individuals and business entities to pay their expected, tax liabilities in installments.
Withholding Allowance Employees claim this allowance on Form W-4, and give this form to their employers so that such employers can withhold earnings from their wages to pay estimated, federal, income taxes.
Working Capital This represents a business entity's ability to convert assets to cash.
Write-off In accounting, this is the recognition of an asset's, zero value.
Yield Financially, this is the cash amount that a security owner receives in cash percentagewise.
Yield to Maturity (YTM) This could be a bond's, book yield or redemption yield assuming that the bond will be held until it matures.
Zero Coupon Bond This is a bond that when purchased, the price was lower than its face value. The face value will be repaid when it matures.